Abstract. Psychosis is a condition characterized on current diagnostic tests by impairment and may include severe disturbances of cognition, thinking, behaviour, and emotion. The need for early diagnosis and prevention of psychotic episodes in adolescents challenges traditional models of counselling, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of the present study is to derive the main themes and psychological manifestations in the first psychotic episode in adolescents and to deepen knowledge and raise questions around the specific experiences of psychotic adolescents in order to help the clinical psychologist and psychotherapist in diagnostic and therapeutic counselling. This thus goes beyond the visible behaviour and the medical model that pays little attention to the causal relationships in psychosis and its unconscious components. Thirty-six adolescents (27 girls) with subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms and 30 adolescents (16 girls) with neurotic symptoms were interviewed. A clinical approach was used – clinical psychological interview followed by psychotherapeutic work. Findings and statements can be found showing that early psychotic signs may change into a more severe adolescent crisis, as well as indications of the nature of anger towards parents, unstable mood and aggressivity. Leading themes in interviews and psychotherapeutic sessions may relate to feelings of insignificance in the world around them, unclear sexual identification, too close a relationship with their mothers, and anxiety about real or symbolic absence such as their mothers’ working away from home for long periods of time. In 79% of the interviews with adolescents with psychotic symptoms, we see a lack of real symbolic play in childhood. suitable for non-psychotic adolescents, in this case to change in the first psychotic episode.****What does this last sentence mean? The importance of early diagnosis is recognized and the known psychotherapeutic techniques must be used.
Keywords: early psychosis, adolescent, positive psychotherapy, counselling